Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Signs point to two hidden rooms at Tutankhamun’s tomb, experts say

My latest article for The Art Newspaper.

Early evidence uncovered by archaeologists working at Tutankhamun’s tomb in Luxor, Egypt suggest that two additional chambers may lie hidden at the boy pharaoh’s burial site.

A physical examination of the tomb walls by specialists, led by Egypt’s head of antiquities Mamdouh Eldamaty and the British archaeologist Nicholas Reeves, suggests that the ceiling continues behind its north wall, and that this may once have formed part of a corridor.

Monday, 28 September 2015

Tutankhamun’s mask and tomb off view to tourists from October

My latest article for The Art Newspaper.

From October, Tutankhamun’s golden mask will be off display and his tomb closed to tourists. The boy king’s famous mask is being taken off display at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, to enable conservators to remove epoxy resin, applied to the mask in August 2014 as a way of re-securing its loose beard. Although the beard was not broken, as was widely reported at the time, and the epoxy has not discoloured or harmed the mask, it is not the most suitable material for the job, and too much was applied, leaving dried traces visible to viewers.

To read the rest of the article, click here...

Looking Great for Eternity: Egypt's Predynastic Cosmetic Palettes

The Narmer Palette -
an example of a "commemorative palette"
Walk into any museum with an Egyptian collection, and as you explore, you're likely to find your surroundings quite familiar. After all, ancient Egyptian art is very recognizable. In paintings, people are shown with their heads, arms and legs in profile, but with their torso's twisted towards the viewer. With the action neatly separated into clear registers, there is no danger of confusion, and because a person's size shows his importance, it's always easy to spot the key players. Egyptian statues too can easily be identified: to reduce the chance of breakage, the arms and legs are typically kept close to the body, locked in stone; hieroglyphs decorate the base and back; and, despite the wide variety of wigs, kilts and tunics carved, they all scream "Egypt!", even to those with little knowledge of Egyptian art. Egyptian statues can also easily be spotted thanks to their use of "frontality", a fancy way of saying that they're meant to be viewed from the front. Through it all, whether in statuary or 2D art, order - the concept of maat to the ancient Egyptians - dominates.

But certain objects in the museum don't fit - they have a freeness of style quite unlike most objects surrounding you. Almost certainly, these non-conformist pieces will date to the Predynastic Period, a time before Egypt's unification in around 3050 BC, and before the "rules" of Egyptian art were (quite literally) set in stone. Vessels from this time are often decorated with abstract patterns - geometric shapes, great swirls, large circles and semi-circles painted in red. You'll also find smile-shaped boats, their unseen rowers dangling oars vertically from their sides, cabins at their centre, their hulls floating among pyramidal hills and beside stylized goats and ostriches. Graceful figurines, wide-hipped and fingerless, also float into view, their tapering arms raised above their heads like ballerinas, their oval, blank faces expectant of your thoughts.

Diamonds, Boats, Shields and Animals
Amongst the Predynastic objects, you will also find cosmetic palettes. From the start of the Badarian Period (roughly 4400 BC), the Egyptians carved pieces of stone - most often mudstone - into a manageable size to use as a surface for grinding pigment. The ground malachite, red ochre or galena was then mixed with resins, oils or fats to form a paste that could be applied to the face as eye-makeup. The process of grinding also left circular indents in the stone, which today can often retain traces of ancient pigment.

As eye-makeup was fashionable among both sexes throughout Egyptian history, cosmetic palettes are the most commonly found class of object in Predynastic burials after beads and pottery, highlighting their importance to their owners in both life and death. Indeed, many palettes were pierced at their upper edge, allowing them to be hung in the home, probably to keep them safe, but also for display; other, tinier palettes - too small to be functional - were probably regarded as amulets, and either hung from the belt or worn on a necklace. So, as well as being appreciated for their aesthetic qualities, it is possible that the palettes had a religious significance, though we are unaware of their meaning.

Although Egypt's earliest cosmetic palettes were chunky, rectangular slabs of stone, embellished only by notches carved at either long end, over the course of 1,400 years, they developed into a range of shapes and sizes. The first palettes after the Badarian phase were typically rhomboidal (diamond-shaped, sometimes long and sleek, sometimes squat), and vary in size from just a few centimeters in length to almost a meter. As time passed, Egypt's stoneworkers became more experimental; from the end of the Naqada I phase of Egypt's Predynastic Period (around 3550 BC), a vast array of shapes appear in the artist's repertoire, including "pelta"-shaped palettes. Appearing like small anchors, these are, in fact, representations of boats in profile, often with birds' heads carved at the prow and stern, and with a small cabin at the centre. This form of cosmetic palette vanishes from history in around 3400 BC.

At the same time that "pelta" palettes made their appearance, shield-like palettes (scutiform) and animal shapes (zoomorphic) also came into use. Shield-shaped palettes became especially popular in around 3400 BC and continued to be made until the end of the Predynastic Period, around 400 years later. At the top of the "shield", the stoneworkers often carved stylized birds' heads in profile, their faces turned away from each other and their eyes embellished with ostrich shell.

The most endearing of Egypt's cosmetic palettes, however, are those carved fully as animals. Of the many animal shapes known, turtles (which appear as if flattened by some ancient steamroller), birds and fish dominate, each carved as if in silhouette and plain except for the odd incised detail or eye. Indeed, many palettes only resemble their subject in a very rudimentary way; some fish, for example, were carved as basic ovals with only the slightest hint of a tail-fin. (Some are so rudimentary that you wonder if Egyptologists are right in identifying them as a fish at all.) The squashed-turtle type (a non-academically recognized category) are particularly appealing because of their (unintentional?) cuteness: carved as fat ovals with tiny flippers, their bodies are topped by squat heads with bulbous eyes. Other animal palettes, and especially those representing birds, were also carved to appear plump, allowing their owners ample space on which to grind their pigment.

"Commemorative" or "Ceremonial" Palettes
In Naqada III (3150-3000 BC) , the forms of palette the Egyptians produced became more artistically restricted and their appearance progressively simpler. Gone were the endearing animal shapes and "pelta" palettes, replaced by stern rectangular slabs, often with incised lines running around their outer edges as their only decoration; this type of palette continues to be found into the 1st Dynasty (around 3050 BC), when it too vanishes from history. Nevertheless, this doesn't mean that Naqada III was devoid of artistic experimentation. At this time, large, elaborately carved shield-shaped palettes were produced as prestige items for the elite. The simultaneous decline in decorative palettes among Egypt's less privileged population could indicate the elite's appropriation of palettes as a medium for the display of wealth and status; effectively, palettes as items of beauty were now for the rich alone. Indeed, only around 25 of these elite palettes are known, highlighting their restricted use.

Though carved, as usual, with a central circular space for grinding pigment, these shield-shaped palettes were never used for this purpose; rather, as surfaces for display, seemingly placed in temples, they were carved with images representative of the elite's ruling ideology, and may also have been used to commemorate important events, leading scholars to refer to them as "commemorative" or "ceremonial" palettes. Perhaps the most famous example of this type, the Narmer Palette, found at Hierakonpolis and now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, shows the king smiting an enemy on one side, and the intertwined heads of serpopards - a Mesopotamian motif - on the reverse, signifying the unification of Egypt. At the same time, the palette represents the triumph of order over chaos, something emphasized by its orderly composition. Another example, the Battlefield Palette, in the British Museum, depicts a lion, perhaps symbolizing the king, biting into an enemy, while vultures pick at other fallen foes. It is thought that this scene may commemorate an Egyptian victory. The Libyan Palette, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, may also commemorate a victory and the subsequent booty taken, as well as attacks on various fortified cities. In all cases, however, such imagery may be entirely symbolic, unrelated to true historical events.

Kohl Containers
During the 1st Dynasty, the use of commemorative palettes died out, as did the use of mudstone cosmetic palettes. For the rest of Pharaonic history, the surfaces used for grinding pigments are plain, and generally take the form of simple, rectangular blocks of stone of varying types. Indeed, during the Dynastic Period, it seems that the Egyptians preferred to focus their artistic creativity on the vessels that contained their eye-makeup. In the Old Kingdom, kohl was stored in small jars, which, by the Middle Kingdom, had taken on a standard appearance, being flat-bottomed with a wide and flat rim. In the New Kingdom, styles became more elegant; vessels from this time are typically much slimmer and longer than in earlier periods, and could taper at both ends. They were also made from a variety of materials, though calcite, faience and glass examples were most popular. The most elaborate containers take the shape of figures carrying pots, used to store the kohl, or imitate bundles of hollow reeds.

You Can Take it With You
It is a common misconception that Egyptian art remained static for thousands of years; that this is a fallacy can easily be seen in the surviving objects from the Predynastic Period, and especially in the evolution and disappearance of mudstone cosmetic palettes. It is true, however, that appearance was important to the ancient Egyptians throughout the Pharaonic Period. As far back as 4400 BC, they took their beloved cosmetic equipment to the grave, and even adorned the faces of the dead with eye-makeup. Thousands of years before mummification practices were refined, the ancient Egyptians already hoped to look as good in death as they had in life.

This article originally appeared in Al Rawi: Egypt's Heritage Review, Issue 7

Saturday, 13 June 2015

Bran, Brasov, and Bucharest

Bran Castle. Photo: Garry Shaw
As many of you know, as well as my Egyptology work I also write travel articles. My latest article for Timeless Travels magazine is about exploring Romania and the story of Vlad the Impaler (and his association with the Dracula story).

Here's the opening paragraph: 

'We cannot say that Vlad the Impaler was entirely sane, but he is a great hero to us,' said Andrei, my guide, as we departed Bucharest, driving north out of the Romanian capital. The car pulling away, I watched a black cat delicately pick its way across a window ledge on a distant neoclassical building, like a passing shadow. This wasn't the only dark omen. A couple of hours later, leaving sunny Wallachia Province behind, we entered Transylvania. The weather abruptly changed. Mist rose. Snow fell. The sky darkened. The car bumped along a potholed road. A Roma village, full of colourful wooden houses, bounced by. In the distance, a fortress perched upon a craggy mountain. 'A peasant fortress,' Andrei explained, pointing. 'The people ran there in times of trouble.' Just the type of thing you want to hear on the way to the famed 'Dracula Castle,' I thought, increasingly convinced that the Romanian tourist board had staged it all.

You can download a pdf of the article here: Exploring Bran, Brasov and Bucharest

And if you enjoy it, please download the rest of the Summer 2015 issue of Timeless Travels (it's free!). It's full of wonderful history-themed travel pieces. You can find it at: http://flickread.com/edition/Timeless-Travels-Magazine/

Friday, 12 June 2015

Great Dam of Marib and Al-Qahira castle in Yemen damaged by Saudi airstrikes

My latest article for The Art Newspaper...

Recent Saudi airstrikes have caused further damage to heritage sites across Yemen. Among them is the eighth-century Great Dam of Marib, “one of the most important cultural heritage sites in Yemen and in the Arabian Peninsula”, according to Unesco director-general Irina Bokova. Images taken after the airstrike reveal that part of the dam’s wall has collapsed, and ancient Sabaean inscriptions at the site may also have been affected.

To read more, click here...

Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Mummies Alive: The Pharaoh's Secret - Some Comments - Updated 11th June 2015

It was fun to see myself on TV last night (and to find that the narration incorporated a lot of my work). But as well as noting that my shirt looked terrible, I was excited to hear Dr. Shepherd's new theory on how Seqenenre Tao died. Interesting stuff! And for the purpose of taking the debate further in future, here are my thoughts on it all:

Dr. Shepherd suggests that various wounds to Seqenenre's head showed signs of healing. I'm not sure why he thinks this. A study from 1978 suggested that the lower frontal wound had possibly healed. But as has been argued since, this wound was inflicted by an axe that was long enough to penetrate the brain (and in fact the wound was found surrounded by brain matter). There's no chance that he survived this blow. I've not read a report arguing that any other wounds had healed (the 1978 study only talked about the wounds to the top of the head). If Dr Shepherd has found evidence of healing among the head's other wounds, I'd love to read about it, as it would be rather important new evidence.

Though seemingly agreeing that Seqenenre wouldn't have been fighting (backed up by the lack of any wounds to any other part of the body than the head), Dr. Shepherd argued that Seqenenre had somehow managed to receive an axe blow beneath his left eye, a mace blow to the centre-right of his face, and a spear thrust below the left ear, all of which he survived. In a time before modern medicine and any sort of painkillers, it's rather unlikely that a man would've survived a stone mace blow (or thrust from the back of an axe) to the face, particularly one that utterly disintegrated one of his eye sockets and destroyed his nose.

Dr. Shepherd then says that the spear was thrust into Seqenenre's spine, below the left ear (and the video implies that this occurred as he lay on the battlefield). It would seem a bit odd for the attacker to simply leave the king paralyzed. If the enemy leader was lying there, defeated, why not just finish him off? Why be happy to leave him paralyzed?

The reconstruction of the assassination glossed over the fact that the two upper wounds to the head (the death blows according to Dr. Shepherd's new theory) were inflicted by two different weapons. Did the assassin decide to switch axes in-between blows (Egyptian axe for Hyksos axe)? Did two people turn up to attack Seqenenre as he lay paralyzed, each with different axes? How did they get past the royal bodyguards?

If he was assassinated in the palace, why was he mummified in so poor a manner? To quote from my JARCE article: "Clearly, those that performed the embalming did not have access to the proper materials necessary: natron was not used, causing body fluids to remain, and no attempt had been made to remove the brain or insert linen. If the king had been killed in the palace by officials who had respect for the Theban monarchy yet wanted a new king to come to power, perhaps due to some weakness of Seqenenre, or if the king had been killed by Hyksos assassins, it would be expected that his body would be mummified properly. If he had been killed by people wishing to overthrow his dynasty—people who would have no need to show his body respect—they would have simply ignored or destroyed the corpse, rather than attempt to mummify it without the proper materials. Essentially, natron would surely have been used in any scenario in which some level of respect would need to have been shown to the body. The lack of this fundamental element of mummification practice shows that embalming occurred when there was no access to it, most probably when Seqenenre was away from Thebes or a major Theban controlled settlement."

Seqenenre's hand positions were probably simply a result of him lying on his front for some time after death, and need not be explained by paralysis.

Just some thoughts. Always good to see people discussing Seqenenre, and definitely interesting to hear the opinions of a forensic expert! I look forward to reading what future studies find!

June 11th Update

I recently received an email from a retired medical doctor, currently undertaking a PhD on mummies at Manchester Museum, regarding the medical analysis of Seqenenre in the show. Here's his comments:
I recently viewed the "Mummies Alive" programme on Seqenenre Tao. The point of particular interest at present is the claim by the Forensic Pathologist that Seqenenre might have been paralysed by a spear penetration between the occiput and the atlas and subsequently lived on for a significant period before death caused by a second episode of head trauma!
As a retired Orthopaedic Surgeon this concept fails to ring true. The reason is that for the person to have continued living whilst paralysed would (OBVIOUSLY!!) have required continued breathing!! The respiratory muscles fall, broadly, into three groups:- i) the intercostal muscles; ii) the diaphragm and; iii) the accessory muscles of respiration (in the neck and shoulders).
The intercostal muscles require a nerve supply - in other words continuity between brain and spinal cord - down to somewhere between the first and twelfth thoracic level.
The diaphragm requires continuity down to the fourth cervical level and the accessory muscles continuity to the first cervical level without any damage to the Accessory Nerve (which lies, in part of its course in the altanto-occipital region).
 It can be seen, therefore, that an injury to the region of the atlas and foramen magnum (clearly illustrated by the pathologist & attributed to a spear blow) would have, almost certainly, rendered the victim UNABLE TO BREATH!! Therefore this injury would be lethal and not rendered the victim paralysed and alive.

Monday, 25 May 2015

Mummies Alive! How did King Seqenenre Tao Die?

Quick post: Last year, I filmed an interview about King Seqenenre Tao, chatting about what we know about the king's life and ho
w he might have died. Well, tonight is its premier, so if you're free at 9pm tonight, catch it on Yesterday Channel UK. For those of you in Canada, its also on History Channel Canada tonight at 9pm, and I think on the US Smithsonian Channel on June 28th, 9pm.

If you want to learn more about my theories surrounding Seqenenre's death, check out my blog post "The Curious Tale of King Seqenenre Tao" - http://garryshawegypt.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/the-curious-tale-of-king-seqenenre-tao.html